Stem cell treatment is the use of stem cells to treat or stop a condition or problem. Bone marrow transplant is the most broadly used stem-cell treatment, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Analysis is underway to produce numerous sources for stem cells, as effectively as to apply stem-cell treatment options for neurodegenerative illnesses and situations this kind of as diabetes and heart condition, among others.
Stem-cell treatment has grow to be controversial following developments this kind of as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells utilizing somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of methods to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is frequently connected to abortion politics and to human cloning. Furthermore, efforts to market treatment options primarily based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For more than 30 many years, bone marrow has been utilized to treat people with cancer with situations this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only type of stem-cell treatment that is broadly practiced. During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, nevertheless, cannot discriminate among the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells inside the bone marrow. It is this side effect of standard chemotherapy approaches that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces practical stem cells to substitute the cells misplaced in the host’s physique for the duration of remedy. The transplanted cells also produce an immune response that helps to destroy off the cancer cells this approach can go too far, nevertheless, foremost to graft vs host condition, the most significant side effect of this remedy.
An additional stem cell treatment named Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host condition in children who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem treatment primarily based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of grownup donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to ten,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen till necessary.
The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell goods derived from umbilical cord blood, for the remedy of blood and immunological illnesses.
In 2014, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of limbal stem cells for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.